Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Brian Friel's Translations Language has been the topic of many debates throughout history. It is an issue, which can cause upheaval and even bloodshed. A modern day example of this can be found right here in Canada. A great amount of time, and emotional input, among other things, has been invested into Quebec's sovereignty debate. There has been no long-term solution to the problem. This may be due to the lack of understanding the majority tongue has of the issues. Language is a part of one's identity. One might even venture to say the most important component. It is the framework used to make sense of the world. Of course other methods are adequate to do this, but language is paramount. To understand one must interpret and internalize. One's language is interwoven with culture; consequently morals, values, and traditions are passed down by language to future generations. In Friel's Translations correlation of language and identity are best exemplified through the character Owen who embraces English, forgets what language actually means, and in essence slights who he is. Owen is the Irishman in Translations who seizes English. He believes it to be an element of success. Language is to be manipulated to fulfill his needs. The culture that is a vital part of the Irish tongue is forgotten, or more conveniently brushed aside to allow for "betterment". A major problem that arises from this is that "...culture is socially constructed, symbolically maintained and transmitted..." (Sackney 59). Without Irishmen speaking and experiencing their language it will die, and inevitably be only a memory of better times. As far as Owen is concerned his mother tongue is outdated, and for the uncivilized. This attitude is highlighted when he speaks to his long time friends and family members at the hedge-school. "My job is to translate the quaint, archaic tongue you people persist in speaking into the King's good English" (Friel 29). The Gaelic tongue is becoming obsolete in the wake of colonization. Owen has boarded the ship of "progress" disassociating himself from his foundation. The language and culture in which he was raised is left secondary to success. In the shuffle his identity has been unquestionably watered down. Assimilation is the key to the "divide and conquer" tactic used by colonists throughout the centuries. Owen has been divided from his people. He has become a nameless face in the struggle to prevail. For Owen names seem to be insignificant. He has lost sight to why they are meaningful. "Owen: Back to first principles. What are we trying to do? Yolland: Good question. Owen: We are trying to denominate and at the same time describe..." (Friel 35). The question that arises is Dun na nGall or Donegal, Muineachain or Monaghan? Congruent place; therefore nothing has changed? As Owen states about his own name "Owen-Roland-what the hell. It's only a name" (Friel 33). He does not comprehend that the primary function of a word is not only its meaning, but also its implication. The importance lies in the significance of those names in a specific context, and being heard from a unique and individual mouth. It is near impossible to convey identical meaning of terms in any contrasting languages, because words are specific to a culture, and that experience. Diverse traditions and cultures are being assimilated into the English masses with the fallout being a destruction of heritage. The effects of this dilemma are evident in the Gaelic League of Austin's mission statement quoted here. "We strive to preserve the language and culture of Ireland, and feel that with hard work and dedication, those in Ireland and abroad can make a genuine step towards promoting the beautiful and vital culture against threats of standardization. ...It [Irish] is worth saving and perpetuating for generations to come." Owen is an example of the type of people who reduced Irish to this level. He has taken on the English language to replace Irish, not just the Irish language, but everything that is interwoven within it. Owen has acquired the English language, but does not realize that he will never be English. There is a divider, which prohibits this second language speaker from completely being embraced into the language. He is the colonized, not the colonizer. Owen will always be Irish to the British, even though he is their ally. He is an outsider on the inside, but overlooks this. He is finally faced with this reality when he is just the translator. "Lancey: ...commencing forty-eight hours from now we will embark on a series of evictions and a leveling
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Essay on Anarchism and OtherEssay Writing Service Essay on Anarchism and Other Essay on Anarchism and OtherEmma Goldman anarchism involves the severe social criticism. The social critism developed by Emma Goldman in her Anarchist theory was driven by the social injustice persisting in the society which she witnessed on the regular basis. The social inequality, the oppression of workers by employers and the government, the richness of a few and the desperate poverty of others, all these factors contributed to the development of her Anarchist theory based on the total liberation of humans from any external, social bounds, like government.Instead, Emma Goldman developed the idea of the liberation of individuals within their communities which she viewed as the only plausible form of the social organization. What is meant here is the fact that Goldman believed that people should live in their communities and have the right and opportunity to do whatever they are inclined to.Another important premise of her theory is the idea of the balanced life of people within the ir natural environment. Emma Goldman believed that people should have equal access to natural resources and use them according to their needs without restrictions imposed by some people. the free access to natural resources would balance the life of people not only in relation to their community but also in relation to their natural environment. To put it more precisely, Emma Goldman believed that the control over natural resources by the few deprives other people of an opportunity to have access to basic commodities created with the help of natural resources. At the same time, the access of all people to natural resources would tackle their socioeconomic problems. For instance, if people have access to farming lands, they could earn for their living using those lands. Such philosophy implied the environmental balance, when people take from nature as much as they need, while restrictions imposed by the private property on natural resources stimulated people to consume more because o wners of natural resources stimulated their consumption because the increase of consumption led to their enrichment.In such a context, Emma Goldman believed in the essential emancipation of women because the elimination of gender differences was an essential component of the elimination of inequality between people. She was aware of the persisting inequality between men and women and she rejected the oppressed position of women in the society. This is why she believed that the ideal society based on the implementation of her Anarchist theory was the society free of the gender discrimination and oppression. This is why she supported the rise of feminism and struggle of women for their rights.At the same time, the ideas of Emma Goldman can be correlated to events described by Barbara Kopple in her Harlan County, where she depicts the coal miner strike. In fact, Kopple depicts the desperate poverty of miners and the social injustice which Goldman viewed as the major vice of the contemp orary society. Kopple shows that a few hold control over the life of the entire community, whereas the government with the help of law enforcement agencies helps those few to maintain their control over the community suppressing any attempt of protest or rebel against the existing rules set by the few.Thus, Anarchist theory developed by Emma Goldman was based on her observations of numerous socioeconomic problems and represented her vision of the ideal social order.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Article critique - Essay Example The data collection and data analysis methods were appropriate for the research and information was also obtained easily from the target groups. I would carry out the same research making use of suitable references from books, educational journals and information from online resources (Wray.et.al, 1999). This would make results more credible and reliable. The article is addressing a critical issue in health care such as health planning and the problems facing veterans in rural areas. The design for the research study was appropriate. The method of data collection was favorable to all participants and the method of analysis t-test was appropriate to obtain good results (Wray.et.al, 1999). The research took into consideration other methods that would help in the attainment of credible results. To achieve a better research paper, researchers should improve their abstract and give a summary of all what they have done in the course of study. They should also provide a credible literature review that is supported with evidence from earlier researchers in the same field. The research should also provide recommendations that should be implemented to ensure better health care (Wray.et.al, 1999). Further, the research should provide room for future research studies and include references. The figures and tables referred to in the table should be shown to make the paper more appealing to readers and make it easier to understand. The article does not have adequate reliable references. In the article various studies were conducted by various researchers but only their names appear but the writer did not indicate the years when these studies were carried out and published (Wray.et.al, 1999). The research problem is in line with the objectives. It also relates well with purpose of the stud y which was to assess the health status of veterans receiving VA treatment and those receiving treatment from mobile clinics (Wray.et.al, 1999). Data
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Up To Interpretation - Research Paper Example The modern era of artwork has seen a fundamental shift in the means by which the public interacts with art. Whereas before, the artwork was somewhat straight forward and readily discerned, the artwork of the modern period has left a great deal more up to personal interpretation; choosing to exploit the constructivism that has defined so much of our modern era. As a means of fully appreciating such a reality, one has to question the true nature of art: whether its subjectivity is an overall strength or an overall weakness. According to Janoaro and Altshuler, Ã¢â¬Å"The treasure of art, however, is that its reality lives on after its subjects die. The final product is an addition to reality, not simply a way of reproducing itÃ¢â¬ . As such, it is the strong belief of this observer that Janoaro and Altshuler have perfectly encapsulated the heart of the matter regarding art and its appreciation. Rather than confining art to a type of fantasy in which one must only appreciate within the garb of tired convention and conformity, the availability of modern art to allow for a type of constructivism and subjectivity is one of the greatest developments that art has seen come to fruition over the past 100 years. Due to the introduction of this level of subjectivity, art has been able to mean more to individuals who may otherwise have never had an interest in the convention. Moreover, it has provided for a type of open mindedness that has allowed the arts to grow and develop in ways and at a rate.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Diversification in Mainstream Media - Essay Example With the age of reality television in full force, it can become quite difficult to find televisions shows that set out to reach the threshold of outlining how diverse society can be. The televisions show in question is "The West Wing" from NBC. Answer: Throughout its seven year run on NBC, "The West Wing" maintained an example of addressing the diverse issues that face both Americans, as well as the rest of the world on a day-to-day basis. As a contemporary political voice, the creators used their weekly episodes to draw attention to the varying levels of human nature and human problems. With the White House as the visual landscape, the television medium became an ample source to exemplify the diverse nature that is governmental procedure and politics in general. Coming to a close after a highly charged seven year run, the show tops off its performance for diversification by zeroing in on the diverse and multi layered nature of public campaigning for the highest office in the land the Presidency of the United States. Answer: As old as the first newspaper, the use of stereotypes has been around for centuries. A choice of label meant by the user, to classify the other person(s) in a specific category, whether it's true or false. To a great extent through its means, the media on a daily, even an hourly basis, relies on stereotypes for justification and explanation. In the case of the media at hand, the stereotype commonly used for Democrats are being weak on national defense and Republicans fumbling as it comes to domestic tranquility. Through the eyes of "The West Wing" and the events surrounding the election held during the final season, the viewer comes to realize that stereotypes are just that and ultimately, a hindrance in understanding the bigger picture as it comes to comprehending the full capability that human nature can muster. C. Assess whether or not you believe the selected article, television show, or motion picture fostered a better understanding of diversity and multiculturalism. Justify your answer. When it comes down to it, "The West Wing" does provide a believable backdrop as it comes to the understanding of the diverse national platform and the multicultural nature of its citizens. As it is dealing with the political waters that are ever so choppy, the participants are forced to face the playing field of diversity in opinion, actions and the cultural system which is interwoven amongst it all. As is the case, in terms of mainstream television, a show such as "The West Wing" serves as the necessary vehicle to facilitate the discussion of diversity and multiculturalism. After all, the underlying nature of the program is aided by the understanding and representation of the diverse, multicultural nation that is the United Sates, but also the diversity and cultural scene of the national political landscape. Conclusion Diversity is one of the keys to achieving a greater understanding. An understanding of the complex cultural landscape that makes mankind what it is and what it claims to strive for. Without a sense of diversity, what it is that is being looked at can be best described as a false
Friday, November 15, 2019
Causes Of The Indian Removal Act Architecture Essay The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was unfolded was during a time of contradictions. While it was a period of expanding democratic institutions, it also pointed to obvious limitations of that democracy. States largely abolished property restrictions on voting and as the Western frontier was being expanded, it meant more opportunities of settlement for whites. However, the Western land of promise spelled disaster for the Native peoples who lived with the whites. No one better understood the contradictions of this age of democracy than the Cherokees, who adopted many of the white institutions only to suffer from the tyranny of the majority and were forced to the West against their will. In this study, I will answer the question: What were the causes of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and what were its effects upon the Cherokee nation? Before the act, the American government sought to civilize and integrate the Native Americans into their culture, and the Cherokees were an example of the successes of assimilation. I will explore why there was such a significant shift in American policies toward the Native Americans from assimilation to removal. I will also discuss the long term effects of the Indian Removal Act that negatively altered the internal organization of the tribes and created factions within the Cherokee nation. I relied on both primary and secondary sources to understand both Americans and the Cherokees perspectives on the act. In my research, I discovered the grievances harbored by the Cherokee nation when the American policies were changed and implemented. The Indian Removal Act is, without a question, a Cherokee tragedy, but it is also an American tragedy. The Cherokees had believed in the promise of democracy by the United States, and their disappointment is a legacy that all Americans share. Introduction: The Cherokees were only one of the many Native Americans forcibly removed in the first half of the nineteenth century, but their experiences have a particular significance and poignancy. The Cherokees, more than any other native people in their time, tried to adopt the Anglo-American culture. In a remarkably short time, they transformed their society and modified their traditional culture to conform to United States policies, to fulfill the expectations of white politicians, and most importantly, to preserve their tribal integrity. This civilization policy required a total reorganization of the spiritual and social world of the Cherokees. They established schools, developed written laws, and abolished clan revenge. Cherokee women became involved in spinning and weaving while the men raised livestock and planted crops. Some Cherokee even built columned plantation houses and bought slaves. John C. Calhoun, secretary of war, writes to Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Representatives on January 15, 1820, The Cherokees exhibit a more favorable appearance that any other tribe of Indians. They are already established two flourishing schools among them.' (Ehle 154). By adopting the white culture, the Cherokees hope to gain white respect. Acculturation was also a defensive mechanism to prevent further loss of land and extinction of native culture. Even more adamant Cherokees firmly believed that civilization was preferable to their traditional way of life. The progress of the Cherokees astounded many whites who trave led through their county in the early nineteenth century. Adding to these achievements, a Cherokee named Sequoyah invented a syllabary in 1820 that enabled the Cherokees to read and write in their own language. They also increased the number of written laws and established a bicameral legislature. By 1827, the Cherokees had also established a supreme court and a constitution very similar to those of the United States. Their educated men even attended the American Boards seminary in Cornwall, Connecticut, and could read Latin and Greek as well as understand the white mans philosophy, history, theology, and politics (Anderson 7). The Cherokees exceeded the goals proposed for the Indians by various United States presidents from George Washington and Andrew Jackson. In the words of a Cherokee scholar, the Cherokees were the mirror of the American Republic. On the eve of Cherokee removal to the west, many white Americans considered them to be the most civilized of all natives peoples (Anderson 24). What then caused the Cherokees to be removed? Why were they forced to abandon homes, schools, and churches? From demographic shifts to the rise in political factions, the ensuing conflicts that arising from the Indian Removal Act of 1830 still affect the surviving Cherokee nation today. Causes of the Indian Removal Act: It is important to recognize that the decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s was more a reformulation of the national policy that had been in effect since the 1790s than a change in that policy. In the early years of the Republic, seizure of Indian land was a way of civilizing Native Americans. First articulated by George Washingtons Secretary of War, Henry Knox, on July 2, 1791 in the Treaty of Holston, the policy of seizing native lands was that the Cherokee Nation may be led to a greater degree of civilization, and to become herdsmen and cultivators, instead of remaining in a state of hunters. The United States will from time to time furnish gratuitous the said nation with useful implements of husbandry. On the surface, the original goal of the civilization policy seemed philanthropic. Making civilized men out of savages would benefit the Native Americans and the new nation as well as ensure the progress of the human race (Bernard Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian, 119). However, the policy represented attempts to wrest the Cherokee lands. Knox and his successors reasoned that if Indians gave up hunting, their hunting grounds will become surplus land that they would willingly exchange for funds to support education, agriculture and other civilized pursuits (Perdue 25). For this reason, coercing the Indians to cede their hunting grounds would actually accelerate acculturation because they would no longer occupy the forest when they had fields to till. Thomas Jefferson, who became president in 1801, shared Knoxs beliefs. Jeffersons negotiating tactics were far more aggressive than anything Knox envisioned as Jefferson ordered his agents to intensify the pressure on tribes to sell more and larger tracts of land. Soon, he let it be known that treats, intimidation, and bribery were acceptable tactics to get the job done (Anderson 35). Jefferson, with his aggression, merely uncovered that these civilization policies were not for the benefit of the Native Americans. Rather, the assimilation policy was a disguised policy of removal of the Native Americans by the American government. It is therefore important to identify that the cause of the Indian Removal Act did not originate in the 1830s, but rather culminated in the early nineteenth century. However, more immediate reasons did cause Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act of 1830 during Jacksons presidency. The factors contributing to the fate of the Cherokees were the discovery of gold on Cherokee land, the issue of states rights, and the emergence of scientific racism. American speculators coveted the nearly five million acres the Cherokee Nation refused to sell. Whites desired land for settlement purposes as property was an obvious measure of wealth in the South. The southerners also desired more agricultural land as the invention of the cotton gin made cotton a lucrative business. In addition, intrusion into Cherokee lands became more urgent with the discovery of gold on its land in 1829. Also, the Americans began to embrace a belief in white superiority and the static nature of the red man in the period after the 1820s. Many Americans concluded, Once an Indian, always an Indian (Anderson 35). Culture, they believed, was innate, not learned. However civilized an Indian may appear, he retained a savage nature. When the civilization program failed to transform the Indians overnight, many Americans supported that the savages should not be permitted to remain in midst of a civilized society. Though earlier in his letter to Clay, Calhoun had praised the progress of the Cherokees, he concludes the letter writing, Although partial advances may have been made under the present system to civilize the Indians, I am of an opinion that, until there is a radical change in the system, any efforts which may be made must fall short of complete success. They must be brought under our authority and laws, or they will insensibly waste away in vice and misery.' The condescending tone tha t Calhoun takes to describe the Cherokees reveals the racist attitude of the early nineteenth century and sheds light onto one of the reasons why Americans urged Congress to remove Indians from their homelands. In this racist atmosphere of Georgia, another vital cause of removal was states rights. Although the Cherokees saw their constitution as a crowning achievement, whites, especially Georgians, viewed it as a challenge to states rights because the Cherokee territory was within the boundaries of four states. The 1827 Cherokee Constitution claimed sovereignty over tribal lands, establishing a state within a state. Georgians claimed that such a legal maneuver violated the United States constitution and that the federal government was doing nothing to remedy the situation. Sympathetic the Georgians cries was Andrew Jackson, who became president 1829. As a follower of the Republican doctrine of state sovereignty, he firmly supported a national policy of Indian removal and defended his stand by asserting that removal was the only course of action that could save the Native Americans from extinction. Jacksons attitude toward Native Americans was patronizing, describing them as children in need of guidance and believed the removal policy was beneficial to them. To congressional leaders, he assured them that his policies would enable the federal government to place the Indians in a region where they would be free of white encroachment and jurisdictional disputes between the states and federal government. He sought congressional approval of his removal policy and stated to Captain James Gadsden in October 12, 1829 that the policy would be generous to the Indians and at the same time would allow the United States to exercise a parental control over their inte rests and possibly perpetuate their race. Though not all Americans were convinced by Jacksons and his assurances that his motives and methods were philanthropic, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 that allowed: 1) the federal government the power to relocate any Native Americans in the east to territory that was west of the Mississippi River; 2) the president to set up districts within the Indian Territory for the reception of tribes agreeing to land exchanges, and 3) the payment of indemnities to the Indians for assistance in accomplishing their resettlement, protection in their new settlements, and a continuance of the superintendence and care. Effects of the Indian Removal Act: The Removal Act of 1830 left many things unspecified, including how the removal of the eastern Indian nations would be arranged. During Jacksons administration, one of the most important Cherokee groups that decided to leave was led by the powerful Ridge family. At the beginning of the struggle against removal, the Ridge family firmly supported Chief John Ross, one of the elected leaders of the tribe. Ross and his people also believed that the Cherokees years of peace, achievements, and contributions gave them the right to remain on land that was legally theirs. However, the Ridges soon decided that the struggle to keep the Cherokee lands in the East was a lost cause. Major Ridge had been one of the first to recognize that Indians had no hope against whites in war. Two factions then developed within the tribe the majority, who supported Chief Ross in his struggle to keep their homeland in the East, and the Treaty Group, who thought the only solution was to emigrate to the West. Rather than lose all they had to the states in the East, the Ridge party, without the consent of Ross, signed the Treaty of New Echota in December 1835. They treaty conveyed to the United States all lands owned, claimed, or possessed by the Cherokee Nation east of the Mississippi River. Major Ridge explained his decision to give up the Cherokee homeland saying, We cannot stay here in safety and comfortWe can never forget these homesI would willingly die to preserve them, but any forcible effort to keep them will cost us our lands, our lives and the lives of our children' (Gilbert 21). By Cherokee law, the tribe owned all land in common, no individual or minority group had a right to dispose of it. Army officer Major William Davis who was hired to enroll the Cherokees for removal, wrote the secretary of war that nine-tenths of the Cherokees would reject the Treat of New Echota: That paper called a treat is no treaty at all (Gilbert 23). However, on May 17, 1836, the Senate ratified the Treaty of New Echota by one vote, and on May 23, President Jackson signed the treaty into law. The deadline for removal of all the Cherokees from the East was set for May 23, 1838. The Treaty of New Echota was not an honest or fair agreement between the United States and the Cherokee nation. Even Georgia governor William Schley, admitted that it was not made with the sanction of their leaders (Ehle 244). However, in January 1837, about six hundred wealthy members of the Treaty Party emigrated west, a full year before the forcible deportation of the rest of the Cherokees. Cherokee removal did not take place as a single expulsion but instead spanned many years. In the late summer of 1838, a detachment of Cherokees began to exit the stockade where they had been held for many months awaiting the long journey to their new home west of the Mississippi. Some Cherokees had voluntarily moved west, though most remained in their homelands, still not believing they would be forced to leave. In 1838, the Cherokees were disarmed, and General Winfield Scott was sent to oversee their removals. John G. Burnett, a soldier who participated in the removal described the event saying, Women were dragged from their homes by soldiers. Children were often separated from their parents and driven into the stockades with the sky for a blanket and the earth for a pillow. And often the old and inform were prodded with bayonets to hasten them to the stockades (Ehle 393). Those forced from their homeland departed with heavy hearts. Cherokee George Hicks lamented, We are now about to take our final leave and kind farewell to our native land, the country that the Great Spirit gave our FathersIt is with sorrow that we are forced by the white man to quit the scenes of our childhood (Anderson 37). For Cherokees, the Georgian land had meaning far deeper than its commercial value. Their culture and creation tied them to this place, and now they were being compelled to surrender their homes and march west. Above all, Cherokees lost faith in the United States. In one Kentucky town, a local resident asked an elderly Indian man if he remembered him from his service the United States Army in the Creek War. The old man replied, Ah! My life and the lives of my people were then at stake for you and your country. I then thought Jackson my best friend. But ah! Jackson no serve me right. Your country no do me justice now! (New York Observer, January 26, 1839, quoted in Foreman 305-307.) Exposure and fatigue during the deportation weakened immune systems, making the Cherokees susceptible to diseases such as measles, whooping cough, dysentery, and respiratory infections. The number of Cherokees who perished on the Trail of Tears, the name given to the 826 mile route taken took them west, is hard to determine. The most commonly cited figure for deaths is 4,000, approximately one quarter of the Cherokees, and is an estimate made by Dr. Elizur Butler, a missionary who accompanied the Cherokees (Anderson 85). By his own count, John Ross supervised the removal of 13,149, and his detachment reported 424 deaths and 69 births along with 182 desertions. A United States official in Indian Territory counted 11,504 arrivals, a discrepancy of 1,645 when compared to the total of those who departed the East. Sociologist Russell Thorton has speculated that removal cost the Cherokees 10,000 individuals between 1835 and 1840, including the children that victims would have produced have they survived (Anderson 93). Therefore, the overall demographic effect was far greater than the actual number of casualties. When the Ross detachments arrived in the spring of 1839 to the Indian Territory, melding with the Treaty Party who left before the forcible removal was a daunting task. Removal had shattered the matrix of Cherokee society, ripping them from their ancestral sources and shaking their infant institutions of government. Civil war burst forth as the political chasm brought on by the Treaty of New Echota divided the Cherokee Nation. For more than a decade, the Cherokee fought this bloody civil war, and a distorted version of the old clan revenge system reemerged. In June 1839, between six and seven thousand Cherokees assembled at Takatoka Camp Ground to resolve the looming political crisis. Chief John Ross insisted on the continuation of the eastern Cherokee government for several reasons. The Cherokee Nation had a written constitution and an elaborate law code and government, and they did constitute a substantial majority. However, the United States saw the Treaty Party as true patriots, Ross as a villain, and the recent emigrants as savages, thwarting all efforts to reconcile the divided factions in the Cherokee nation. When the meeting ended with a compromise to be voted on a later date, 150 National Party men met secretly and decided that the Cherokees who had signed the Treaty of New Echota were traitors who had violated the Cherokee law prohibiting the unauthorized sale of land. Early on the morning of June 22, one group dragged John Ridge from his bed and stabbed him to death. Another party shot Major Ridge as he traveled along a road in Arkansas, killing him instantly. About the same time, a third group came to Elias Boudinots house and split his head with a tomahawk. Reacting to these acts of violence, the Treaty Party remained opposed to any government dominated by the National Party. They held their own councils and sent delegates to Washington to seek federal protection and the arrest of the persons responsible for the killings. Most of the Treaty Party continued to resist the act of union and bitterly opposed any concession to the National Party, widening the growing political chasm. However, as long as the National Party refused to ratify the Treaty of New Echota, the nationalist Cherokees were refused payment of its annuities and funds by the federal government. The relative prosperity of the Treaty Party members ignited the dormant resentments of the impoverished Cherokees who had suffered the agony of the Trail of Tears (McLoughlin 17). In order to affirm the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation and to alleviate the suffering of his people, Ross pressed for a renegotiation of the fraudulent Treaty of New Echota. While Ross was in Washington in the summer of 1842, violence in the Cherokee Nation escalated as members of the Treaty Party began killing individuals who they believed had been responsible for the death of their leaders. Gangs began to attack and kill other Cherokee citizens, most of whom were identified with the National Party, but became impossible to distinguish between political violence and common crime. The Starr gang, for example, coalesced arou nd James Starr, a signer of the Treaty of New Echota. Under the guise of political resistance, Starrs sons and others terrorized the Cherokee nation. In 1843, they murdered a white visitor to the Cherokee Nation and also burned down the home of John Ross daughter. The violence gave the federal government an excuse to keep troops at Fort Gibson, decry the inefficacy of the Nations government and meddle further in Cherokee affairs. The Treaty Party renewed their hope of undermining Ross authority since federal officials tended to blame Ross for the carnage (Perdue 156). The letters during the time of this Cherokee civil warfare reflected the fear and anguish felt by the people. In November 1845, Jane Ross Meigs wrote to her father, Chief John Ross, The country is in such a state just now that there seems little encouragement for people to build good houses or make anything. I am so nervous I can scarce write at all. I hope it will not be long youll be at home but I hope that the country will be settled by that time too (Rozema 198). Less than a year later, Sarah Watie of the Treaty Party wrote her husband, I am so tired of living this way. I dont believe I could live one year longer if I knew that we could not get settled, it has wore my spirits out just the thoughts of not having a good homeI am perfectly sick of the world (Perdue 141). An uneasy peace came to the Cherokee Nation after the United States government forced the tribal factions to sign a treaty of agreement in Washington in 1846. The Cherokees, under Ross leadership was to be sovereign in their new land. It also brought the per capita payments so desperately needed for economic recovery of the Cherokee Nation. However, with this treaty, the Cherokees were caught in a series of contradictions. Cherokee leaders wanted to convince the white population that they were capable of managing their own affairs if left to their own self-government. But economically, they were tied to the financial aid of the federal government, growing ever more dependent on American funds. Furthermore, in midst of this peace, the Cherokees could not cast aside old fears that continued to haunt them. If whites could drive them from Georgia, why not from this place? From this fear spawned an attitude of distrust toward the American government that is still present in some Cherokee societies today (Anderson 115). Conclusion: The causes of the Indian Removal Policy of 1830 are numerous and varied in interpretation. Some historians have equated Jacksons removal policy with Adolph Hitlers Final Solution and have even called it genocide (Peter Farbs The Indians of North America from Primeval Times to the Coming of the Industrial State New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968). Not only did he encourage the geographical separation of Indians and whites, but thousands of Native Americans perished in the process. Whether or not he advocated this mass extinction of Indians, Jackson on the political front was a staunch supporter of state sovereignty and could not deny Georgias rights to the Cherokees expansive lands. In addition to the impact on the Cherokee demographics, the Treaty of New Echota caused factions within the Cherokee Nation that broke loyalties and caused them to revert back to old clan revenge warfare. The resentment that was fostered between the New Party and the Treaty Party created lasting divisions within the Cherokee nation. Moreover, the Cherokee Nation, before the Indian Removal Act, had prided itself on the fact that it had adapted to white institutions with great degrees of success. However, engaging in clan warfare, the Cherokees took a step back in progress when embroiled in such violence that was primarily caused by the Treaty of New Echota.Ã Furthermore, the Cherokees remained dependent on federal governments economic assistance when they were seeking to prove that they could function better as a soverign nation. The removal of the Cherokees west of the Mississippi is one of the greatest tragedies in United States history. While the Cherokees have shown incredible resilience in recovering from the decimating effects of their removal, the injustice they faced from fraudulent treaties, ethnocentric intolerance, and discriminatory laws will forever stain Americas history.Ã
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Online Newspapers Over Dinner From accessing newspapers without a subscription to searching for articles and being able to find them with a simple click of a mouse, online newspapers have increasingly evolved over the past decade, through their convenient sources and new innovations. The following discusses these developments and the reasons for popularity and also includes a fictional dinner conversation between experts on these types of publications. My thoughts of this new media are also explored before and after researching the topic. A drop of sweat trickles down my cheek as I race through my house finalizing plans for the elegant dinner party. Experts from all across the United States will convene at my residence for dinner, socialization, and discussion of online newspapers. Not only have I spent weeks scrubbing every white linoleum tile in my kitchen and waxing all the wooden floors in the house, especially in the dining room, but I also bought a lavish chandelier with glistening crystals hanging down from its frame and porcelain china for a pleasurable dining experience. Actually preparing the food became an entire separate crisis. I knew some of the authors were vegetarians, lactose intolerant, or simply possessed picky eating habits, so I arranged for six different entrÃ ©es for the guests to choose from in order to satisfy their hunger. I had never gone so far out of my way to please other people, and I prayed that all my hard work and consideration would pay off. My anticipation and anxiety woul d soon be settled in less than an hour. By 6:55, five minutes before expected, my first guests arrived. Shannon E. Martin and Kathleen A. Hansen entered my home, displaying typical librarian and p... ... since the various articles have to be clicked on continuously instead of simply opening to the desired section and they cannot be carried around. EveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes widened and mouths dropped even at the conclusion of his ideals, as no one knew exactly what to say next. Finally, as everyone began shouting his or her own ideas and beliefs, a subtle debate turned into a verbal war. Then, Katz, sat up, thanked me for my hospitality, and proceeded to walk out the door, start up his motorcycle and leave. Again, the same eerie silence plagued the room and gradually, each person changed conversation topics over a white chocolate cheesecake and hazelnut coffee. About an hour later, all my guests began to leave for the evening. Exhausted and overwhelmed by the eveningÃ¢â¬â¢s events, I sat at the kitchen in awe and wondering how I would ever form an opinion of online newspapers.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
My learner is a 19 years old female, on her first placement as a first year nursing student. Permission was obtained from her, to use her experience in making this portfolio. Student nurse not her real name) NC (2008) The code ; Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives, states that,'you must respect people's right to confidentiality', was a cadet nurse prior to this course. Student F was introduced to me as her associate mentor. I have welcomed, orientated her in the ward area as well as introduced her to the members of the staff.POLO packs and relevant materials was also provided for her earning needs. Student F seemed shy but enthusiastic and well motivated to learn. On her second week on he ward she have gained some knowledge and skills. But still feels that she is not yet confident and ready enough to do some procedures, as most of them are new to her. I have assessed student As learning style as a reflector type, who take more cautious approach and li kes to think things through before commitment to anything.. Honey and Muffed, 1995) Based on the proficiency on her handbook, we have discussed her learning needs and wants to focus more on wound management for post pop patients. The NC requires practice teachers to support learning for several reasons one of which is to provide support and guidance to the student when learning new skills, applying new knowledge and competence to a new context of practice, and act as a resource to the student to facilitate learning and professional growth. NC,2008, p 36) NC Code of Professional Conduct (NC,2008) also states that nurses and midwives on the Professional register ; Ã¢â¬Å"were able to support students in critically reflecting their own experiences in order to enhance future learning. Identified Learning Outcome Contributes to the assessment and management of wound for post pop patients. Based on her proficiency book 2. 5. , Demonstrate evidence of a developing knowledge base, which und erpins safe and effective nursing practice.She will demonstrate and develop her skills in the management of wound for post pop patients, rationale behind normal wound healing , signs and symptoms of wound infection. Standard to Support learning and assessment in practice (NC,2008), states that ,Ã¢â¬ nurses and midwives who intend to take the role of a mentor must have the ability to select, support and assess a range of learning opportunities in their area of practice for students, undertaking NC approved programs. Knowledge The student will be able to describe normal wound healing. Describe signs and symptoms of wound infection Accurate assessment of the patients wound and surrounding tissue for evaluation of the wound healing process and management regime. Skills The student will be able to demonstrate procedure in changing simple wound dressing for post pop patient. Demonstrate proper handwriting pre and post procedure.Pratt et states that hand hygiene is important, it is en of the four standard principles in the national guidelines for preventing infections in hospitals. Will be able to document properly to obtain a clear picture of the wound and the wound healing journey. Able to participate and be involve on patients daily assessment of wound and wound care and health teach inns Attitude Obtain consent prior to the procedure Student will maintain privacy and dignity whilst doing confidentiality. Dressing.Maintain To facilitate the learning process and to make learning as active and participative as possible, the learner can be encourage to demonstrate their understanding of concepts,knowledge,skills and attitudes within educational and clinical practice. (Burs and Pullman,carvings, 1 995 and Hughes 2007) Personalized learning, as suggested by Mitchell , et entails collaborative approach to learning combined with rigorous use of assessment information to set target for achievement, based on an understanding of a students current skills and capacity.Lear nt Eng Opportunities Observation -? opportunity to observe staff performing proper wound dressing. Observational learning occurs when an individual learns meeting by observing another person doing it, it is learning by Leaflets/Posters Ã¢â¬â providing the student leaflets, handouts, pictures, available on the ward. Hunching (2009) emphasized that a visual learning style means , it is what can be seen that enables and enhances learning. Participation Ã¢â¬â participate in daily wound care and be involve in health teachings.Actively participating in the learning activity can greatly enhance a students capacity to retain knowledge and ideas. (Hunching,2009) Teaching and Learning Strategies Demonstration Ã¢â¬â showing the student proper dressing Of wound, using septic technique. A demonstration can be defined as a visualized explanation of facts, concepts and procedures. (Quinn,2000) Ã¢â¬ Demonstrating a psychosomatic skill is often regarded as the method whereby learners acq uire knowledge of how to perform. ( Jarvis and Gibson, 1 997) Skills for practice Ã¢â¬â explaining to the student wound dressing whilst it is being done.Inquiry based learning Ã¢â¬â encourage the student to ask questions and be self- directed. Information given about resources which can help in the specific practice settings. Coaching Ã¢â¬â supporting and supervising student urine the actual practice of psychosomatic skills. The availability of learning resources in the ward such as access to the internet, literature from relevant journals, books and access to patient's notes also helps the student to increase their understanding of patient's needs.A designated area of study is also provided that allows the student and the mentor to discuss specific tasks and the students progress. Assessment Methods Observation of Practice -? observing student on performing wound care. The NC,(2008) requires most assessment of competence should be undertaken wrought direct observation in p ractice. Questioning Reflection Ã¢â¬â student will record/document her assessment of the patient. Tests moony of the staff Ã¢â¬â feedback from members of staff which are present and witnessed the actual procedure when performed by the student.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Attempted Robbery Essays The Attempted Robbery Essay The Attempted Robbery Essay It was past midnight. Suddenly there was a knock on the door. I quickly switched on the lights. My instincts told me something was wrong. My mind quickly flew to my parents, who are currently at Grandmas to settle some urgent family matters. Could something have happened to them? Is it the police who are knocking on my door? My palm quickly started to sweat with worry. My nose suddenly picked up a smell; it was an overpowering smell of beer. My heart thumped repeatedly like horse hooves on a dirt road, giving signals to my brain to not open the door. I knew then, it was a premonition of fear and danger. But my curiosity took over any sense that I ever had. True enough, my caution was justified, for when I opened the door, two tall brooding men about 6 feet high stood in front me. They looked too drunk to stay still, as if they were wearing some slippery boots. I couldnt make out their faces because it was too dark but I didnt need to see their faces to know that they were men I should not cross. I kindly asked them to leave, but they continue to be in their drunken stupor and ignored me. They slurred swearing words towards me and my patience quickly trickled to an end and my anger rising to its peak. I felt as if I was a volcano on the verge of eruption to pour out all the lava. I screamed to them quite rudely to leave, but I regretted at once the words that I had just then uttered. As if in reply to my rude screaming, the two men started to shout obscenities at me. Then all of a sudden, something sharp glistened in the dark coming from one of the mens hand. It was a knife. I gulped in fear and judging from his strong muscles, he was indeed very strong. My brain screamed in panic and little beads of sweat formed on my forehead. I went numb with thought, and stood frozen in front of the now two menacing men. The knife-man lunged and as quick as a bolt of lightning he had the point of his knife at my throat. I was wild with increasing fear and the feeling threatened to crush me down to a collapse. My face paled to ghastly whiteness and my heart pounded like the thrumming wings of a caged bird. I continue to stand there as if I was a monument frozen for eternity. I was stunned by all the suddenness of the events and before I knew it, I was held in a vice-like grip by the other man. My heartbeat continued to thrum crazily against my ribcage and I hawked, my throat dry with fear. Reluctantly, I lead them to the drawer where my mum keeps her jewellery. I dread to think of how my mum would react after she finds out all her missing valuables that amount to thousands of dollars. The knife-man leaned over and made a grab for the trinkets. The other man momentarily forgot about me and went aside to the knife-man to also greedily swoon over all the glittery bracelets and necklaces. With sudden courage, I lifted my right hand to come down hard over the back of the knife-man. The force of the blow succeeded in taking the man right down to hit the bedside table. There was a sickening thud as the head banged against the sturdy and hard surface of the table. He was severely injured with blood covering his face and lashes of cuts from the sharp point of the table. He was dropped unconscious. The other man screamed in rage and charged towards me and with quick swiftness I grabbed the perfume on the bedside table and sprayed it into his eyes. He shrieked in fury and agony and temporarily blind, started to sightlessly grab me. I again took upon the chance to seize the chair near the work table and broke it over the mans head. He fell down, statically still. He was dead. Twenty minutes flew by and the police were already herding the then unconscious (now conscious) man into the police car. My parents were back and were alerted with the frightening experience that I had just gone through. Though still shaken, I tried my best to give my statement to the police. My parents were dumbfounded when I told them in detail what had just happened, but when I finished, they smiled and expressed relief that I was not injured. All was well.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
radicalism of the american rev essays There were many ideas that sparked the American Revolution many were ideas that were handed down from the mother country of England. Either through British ideology that was brought over from England. It also came from the Religious orginization that drove the first settlers from England to the Colonies. There were parental differnces between idvidual familys that influenced the people relationship with the king as a parental figure. All of these and many more led up to the Republicanism flourished within the coloinies for various reasons. In England they had already established republican culture which was handed down to the colinist this with some resentment towards the crown lead to a more republican form of government than had ever been established elsewhere. Many of the colonist had no loyalty to the king because of social and religous problems in England. They had been pushed and prodded by the various lords and sometimes by the royal crown itself. This led to a sense contradiction from the king that was techinically their ruler, but they were republican having no loyalty towards him. The relationship with the king was not the only relationship to begin to decay prior to the revolution. The sense of the mother country and colonial relationships and hierarchies were beging to fail at this point. This was not uncommon for this period most if not all of Europe experienced democratic revolutions by the start of the 19th century. In America it was simply taken to whole new levels never before experienced by other nations. The rapid growth of american population forced western expansion. In addition to expasion there was a movement within the established colonies. This nearly constan polupation explosion with its westward expansion and its movement casued the tradional values of community to change, the traditional sence was impossiblt to maintain. Peoples...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Methodology - Dissertation Example Thus, financial reports recorded in this manner make it harder to compare financial reports. This issue has been said to be solved by implementing a standard reporting system or global accounting standards (Hawkins, 2000). Standardized financial reporting has been implemented based on the assumption that it can increase the comparability of financial statements, increase the quality of financial reports, and improve corporate transparency especially in terms of incentives. It has also been determined to be created as a result of the increase in the number of multinational companies or MNCs (Nobes and Parker, 2006). Moreover, Bolt-Lee and Smith (2009) included increase in reporting consistency, better global competition, and increase in the transparency of financial reporting as the benefits of international financial reporting. Moreover, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1999 stated that the financial systems of developing crisis, especially those experiencing financial crisis , can be strengthened by enhancing the financial reporting regulations and practices. Jainkengit (2002) reported an improvement in the economy of Thailand as a result of enhanced financial reporting regulations and practices and transparency or greater disclosure on financial information. Similarly, a study by Daske, Hail, Leuz, and Verdi (2008) explored the effects and consequences of mandatory IFRS (International Financial Reporting Systems) reporting. ... The benefits include increase in stock market value, market liquidity, and lower capital costs. Lastly, the study determined that financial reporting standards are most effective under a strict and strong regulating environment. This is most evident in a study by Barrett (1996) where it was determined that financial reports among American and British companies are more comprehensive because of their disclosure requirements. However, there are factors that affect financial reporting among corporate companies. There is an immense role to be played by economic and political forces in what concerns the shaping of accounting. A study by Suttachai and Cooke (2009) enumerated several factors that affect international financial reporting. The important factors discussed are the environment and culture, wherein environment stands for the legal system, economic system, and other institutional factors. Cooke and Wallace (1990) agree by stating that the environment wherein the company is located can greatly affect financial reporting. Thus, despite the homogeneity in the standards for international financial reporting, it still varies depending on various factors, specifically and most especially in terms of its location and culture. It only imply that although they follow the same standards or format for reporting, the quality of data and the means on which they measure still varies (Suttachai and Cooke, 2009), which is ultimately the purpose of standardizing financial report systems: to decrease and eventually eliminate variation (Nobes and Parker,2006). On the other hand, Choi (2002) stated that harmonization or standardization of financial practices and reports increase the comparability and compatibility of financial reports by limiting the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Why Do Firms Become Multinational Enterprises - Essay Example According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that the characteristic of MNE is that the company links together its affiliates with a common strategic vision and draws on a common pool of assets, information, human resources, trademarks, and patents. Before making a decision to establish a subsidiary abroad the firm should have the proper reasoning for this strategic decision. There are many different motivating factors or reasons for why firms become multinational enterprises. While some firms might pursue only one reason as priority based on its strategic direction, other firms might be influenced by a multitude of reasons. These reasons are classified into four broad categories. Each of these categories has a subset of reasons and factors, which also should be discussed in greater detail. Below is provided a more detailed overview of these groupings. Very often firms need resources, which are not available or accessible in their home countries. In order to solve t his problem, MNEs are often pursuing a strategy of investing abroad and thus to acquire or gain access to the resources that are either more costly in the home country than in foreign country or are not accessible/available at home country. In order to solve this problem, MNEs are often pursuing a strategy of investing abroad and thus to acquire or gain access to the resources that are either more costly in the home country than in foreign country or are not accessible/available at home country.